NEW MATERIAL FROM READERS

Readers who have material that they are prepared to share on this site, should send it to me at prestonbirder@aol.com

This could take the form of family history details, stories relating to a property, or a photograph. All additions will be credited in the way you prescribe.

A new addition could benefit YOU! and vice versa; so, please keep it coming.

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Thursday, 18 December 2014

HOTEL NATIONAL, Friargate

HOTEL NATIONAL
115 Friargate
*
Formerly the "PLOUGH INN"
*
MINE HOSTS:
1901                         John Bullen
1901                         Michael Tommony
1902 - 04                  Henry Atkinson
1907                         Michael Tommony
1910                         Mrs. Elizabeth Tommony
1911                         Mrs. Baldwin
1912                         William John "Billy" Lyon -  former PNE footballer.
1913                         James McDonough
*
Taken from PNE Football Records Magazine up to the 1906 - 07 Season.
The advert relates to the year 1907.
Magazine provided by Ian Rigby, the Official PNE Historian

*
This wonderful family photograph comes to us courtesy of Christine Robinson, whose great grand parents, Michael and Elizabeth Tommony appear on the front row.

They also spent time at the Empire Wine Stores, and the Duke of York Hotel
*
Thanks Christine
*
William John "Billy" Lyon, fined for serving alcohol after hours.  15th July 1912.
*
Manchester Courier  1st April 1913
*
CENSUS RETURN
1911
Mrs. Baldwin              Residing on her own. No further details at present.
*

Wednesday, 17 December 2014

WHITE LION, Syke Hill

WHITE LION
1 Syke Hill
*
Arkwright House, Stoneygate, will give you your bearings for the "WHITE LION".
Shepherd Street runs to the left of the White Lion.
MINE HOSTS:
1808                        Henry Scott   -  wife died 29.11.1808 aged 38 'after a few days of illness'.
1812                        Henry / Thomas Scott   -  d. 26.5.1812 Thomas was probably a son.
1818 - 19                John Walmsley   d. 25.1.1819
1819 - 28                Jane Walmsley
1829                        James Walmsely
1831                        John Mayor
1834                        Richard Strickland
1834                        Thomas Hammond      d. 26.8.1834, see below
1841                        James Stirzaker
1845                        Joseph Park   -  Given in Preston Chronicle 16.8.1845 at the "BLACK LION"
                                                                - owned by Messrs. T. Clark and H. Armstrong
1850 - 54                 Henry Rich
1857 - 61                Thomas Martin
1862                        H. Rich
1865 - 66                Elizabeth Martin  - in 1866 J.S. FOSS married Elizabeth Martin.
1866 - 73                Joseph Scott Foss - in 1870 J.S.F. was cautioned for allowing prostitues to frequent the White Lion.
1877 - 81                Mrs. Mary Seed
1881 - 98                William Reeder Walker - 1882 owned by Rev. Peter Holmes, Huyton, Liverpool.
                                                                    - bought by William Reeder Walker.
1899                        John James Crook        - property owned by Simon Child.
1900                        Simon Child
1900 - 01                Thurston Walker
1902                        Arthur Yates
1902                        Henry Hill
1905                       Charles William F. Chandler - note the conflicting date here
1904 - 07                Henry Haworth
1910 - 17                John William (Jack) Hutchins
1924                       Thomas Nichol
1931 - 32               Alfred Gommersall - wife, Margaret, d. 14.2.1931 aged 56 years.
1936                       Walter Langabeer
1940                       Seth Bond
1944                       Robert Moss
*
DEATH:  On Tuesday last, Mr. Thomas Scott,
of the White Lion public-house, Preston.
Lancaster Gazette  30th May 1812
*
DEATH:  On Tuesday last, Mr. Henry Scott,
of the White Lion public-house, Preston 
Lancaster Gazette  27th June 1812
*
DEATH:  On Monday last, Mr. John Walmsley,
of the White Lion public-house, in Preston.
Lancaster Gazette  30th January 1819 
*
Preston Chronicle  21st May 1831
*
ANY person who can give any account
of the Estate and Effects, or Debts owing
to RICHARD STRICKLAND, late of
the WHITE LION, public-house, Preston,
are requested to send the particulars to
JOHN NOBLE, Maudland Kilns, Preston.
Preston Chronicle 14th June 1834
*
DEATH:  On Tuesday last, Mr. Thomas Hammond,
landlord of the White Lion public-house, Syke.
Preston Chronicle  30th August 1834 
*
 The Era  31st March 1850
*
The Era  16th February 1851
*
Freeman's Journal (Dublin)   19th February 1857
*
Preston Chronicle   19th December 1863
*
Preston Chronicle  6th October 1866
*
Preston Chronicle  26th October 1872
*
*
Preston Guardian  15th February 1879
*
 Lancashire Evening Post   20th September 1905
*
CENSUS RETURNS
1841
James Stirzaker                      34 years                     Publican
Ann Stirzaker                         38                              Wife
James Stirzaker                     10 months                   Son

1851
Henry Rich                             41 years                     Innkeeper                 b. Woodplumpton

1861
Thomas Martin                       36 years                    Innkeeper                              ?
Elizabeth Martin                      32                             Wife
Thurston Martin                       4                              Son
Thomas Henry Martn              5                               Son
Margaret Ellen Martin              1                              Daughter

1871
Walter Scott Foss                  29 years                    Innkeeper                  b. Preston
Elizabeth Foss                        42                             Wife                          b. Bolton ?
Walter Foss                             4                              Son                           b. Preston

1881
William Walker                     21 years                     Lic. Vict.                    b. Preston
Margaret Ellen Walker          21                              Wife                                    do
Thurston Walker                   1                                Son                                     do
    see 1861 census for the link.

1891
William Walker                     31 years                     Publican                     b. Preston
Thurston Walker                   10                              Son                                     do
Margaret E. Walker              31                              Wife                                    do
    
1901
Thurston Walker                   22 years                     Publican                     b. Preston
Margaret U. Walker             22                              Wife                                    do
William Walker                     7 months                    Son                                     do
      see the 1881 census for another link.

1911
Jack Hutchins                       34 years                     Publican                     b. Gateshead
Ellen Hutchins                       38                   Wife / Assisting in business    b. Upholland
Heorge Hutchins                    4                              Son                            b. Blackpool
Jack Hutchins                        3                              Son                                       do
Robert Morris                      14                       Nephew / School              b. Winson Green, Birmingham
Fred Hutchins                      31      Brother / Out of work cabinet maker   b. Gateshead
*


Sunday, 7 December 2014

MITRE INN, Fishergate

MITRE INN
18 Fishergate
*
 Just two doors away from Cannon Street, the entrance to the Mitre Hotel (Inn) can be seen
*
*
*
MINE HOSTS:
1790          Already well-established, the licence having been transferred form the Market Place "Mitre Inn"
1796                   John Taylor - A total of £329 19s. 7d was the total expenditure incurred at the
                                                 Mitre Inn, in the lead up to the 1796 elections. DDK/1683/58
                                                                    John Taylor died 14.7.1816  -  see below.
1805 - 07           Henry Aspinall
1807 - 09           Mrs. Aspinall
1808 - 23           John Hilton
1825                   Michael Whitehead  -  April 29th 1826 - Bankruptcy hearing.
1828 - 32           Thomas Lowe
1833                   James Pearson
1836 - 39           Samuel Wood(s)  -  Moved from the New Cock Inn.
1840 - 43           William Mercer
1845 - 54           George Parker - Auctioneer also.
1854 - 61           Thomas Bibby   -  d. 12.4.1862, aged 38 years, after a lingering illness.
1865                   Henry Brown
1867 - 71           Thomas Bailey  -
1871 - 73           John Ryding
1873 - 81           Joseph Banks
1881 - 85           Thomas Wareing
1885 - 88           Isabella Wareing
1888 - 99           Henry Baldwin - Wife, Leah, d. 7.6.1890 at the Mitre Hotel, in her 25th year.
1900 - 01           Albert Redmond - my notes from the Court Register shows the name Albert Baldwin in 1900
1901                  William Ignatius Swarbrick
1901 - 07           Peter Crook
1910 - 17           James Hothersall
1924                   Richard Henry Jennings
1929 - 32           William C. Hayward
1936                   Charles Butler
1937                   Harold A. Spencer  - wife, Alice May, d. 21.11.1937 (see also, Hearts of Oak, Adelphi)
1940 - 48            Richard Rigby
*
*
MARRIAGE:- On Sunday last, Mr. Alexander Allen,
of London, to Miss A. Bengough, daughter of Mrs. Aspinall,
of the Mitre Inn, Preston.
Lancaster Gazette  28th December 1805
*
Further Notes:
Reference was made above to the ownership of the premises
by Anthony Hewitson, the Proprietor of the Preston Chronicle.
Hewitson bought the premises in 1874, and it would seem likely
that he was still in possession of them at the time of his death
on the 26th October, 1912 - a total of 38 years.
This additional information has come courtesy of a great great niece of Anthony Hewitson, Margaret Dickinson. 
If you would like to know more about Margaret's eclectic mix of interests, then visit her website. Click here.
*
DEATH:  Mr. Henry Aspinwall, of the Mitre Tavern, Preston,
aged 37 years, after a short illness, on the 27th October 1807.
Lancaster Gazette  31st October 1807
*
DEATH:  On Wednesday, last, aged 57 years, Mrs. Aspinwall, 
relict of Mr. Henry Aspinwall, of the Mitre Tavern, Preston.
Lancaster Gazette  4th February 1809 
*
*
Lancaster Gazette  26th June 1813
*
Liverpool Mercury  3rd September 1813
*
DEATH:  On Sunday last, at an advanced age,
Mr. John Taylor, formerly of the Mitre Inn,
Preston.
Lancaster Gazette  20th July 1816 
*
Lancaster Gazette  22nd March 1817
*
Lancaster Gazette  28th February 1818
*
Liverpool Mercury  12th January 1821
*
Lancaster Gazette  26th May 1821
*
Preston Pilot  12th November 1825
*
Derby Mercury  29th August 1827
*
Preston Chronicle 2nd March 1833
*
NOTICE TO CREDITORS
THE CREDITORS OF THOMAS LOWE, late of the
Mitre Inn, Fishergate, Preston, Innkeeper, will be paid
a Dividend of 5s in the Pound, on the amount of their
respective debts, on application at the Vaults of 
Mr. James Irving, Spirit Merchants, Church Street,
Preston, on or after Monday 15th instant.
SOUTHWARD & ASCROFT - Attorneys
Preston Chronicle  13th April 1833
*
See:  Thomas LOWE, below -
Preston Chronicle  18th February 1837
*
*
Preston Chronicle  6th July 1844
*
TARLETON FAIR
On Thursday 23rd April, George PARKER, of
the Mitre Inn, Preston, was appointed Mayor
of Tarleton for the ensuing year.
Preston Chronicle 25th April 1846
*
MITRE INN, FISHERGATE
JANE IRWIN
BEGS to inform her Friends and the Public that she
has taken the BILLIARD ROOM adjoining her house, 
lately in the occupation of Mr. Jos. Robinson,  (entrance
Cannon Street) and which will be RE-OPENED on 
MONDAY NEXT, the 9th inst. She has at considerable
expense, redecorated the room &c., she trusts that she
will merit a portion of public patronage and support, and
it will be her study to give every comfort and general
satisfaction.
N.B. An experienced marker in attendance.
Mitre Inn, Fishergate.
Preston Chronicle 7th November 1846
*
LECTURE BY P.A. WHITTLE
.........In the same year (1715) the Shambles
leading out of Church Street were erected by
Thomas Molyneux, Esq., a Turkey Merchant,
who, with Sir Thomas Stanley, was a member 
of Parliament for the borough in 1695.

The rebellion also took place in this year (1715);
and on the 9th November the Pretender entered
Preston, and remained until the 14th. Immediately
on their entrance the rebels proclaimed James III
of England and VII of Scotland, after which a 
council was held at the Mitre Inn, Fishergate, 
which continued as their Head Quarters during
their stay here.
Preston Chronicle  10th November 1849
This seems very early for the Fishergate Mitre Inn.
Was Whittle correct?

*
MARRIAGE:  On Tuesday 22nd August 1854,
Mr. Thomas Bibby, Innkeeper, to Miss Mary Smith,
both of this town.
Preston Chronicle 26th August 1854
*
Lancaster Gazette  23rd September 1854
*
DEATH:  On Thursday 24th September 1857, 
Mary, wife of Thomas Bibby, of the Mitre Inn, in
this town, aged 27 years.
Preston Chronicle  26th September 1857
*
DEATH: On the 16th January 1859,
Frederick, only surviving child of 
Mr. Thomas Bibby of the Mitre Inn,
aged 4 months.
Preston Chronicle   29th January 1859
*
*
*
*
*
*

*
*
Longworth's Advertiser 1873
*
Preston Chronicle  2nd May 1874
*
Mr. PETER CROOK wishes to inform his numerous friends and the public generally,  that he has now taken possession of the Mitre Hotel, Fishergate, Preston, next door to Liptons, and hopes that they will favour him with a call.
Lancashire Evening Post  4th October 1901
*
 Lancashire Evening Post   27th November 1929
*
 Lancashire Evening Post 19th November 1930 
Was this the former home of William C. Hayward - see
article, above. 
*
 Lancashire Evening Post  9th September 1933
*
 Lancashire Evening Post  22nd November 1937
*
 Lancashire Evening Post  26th November  1937
*
 Lancashire Evening Post  29th September 1938
*
CENSUS RETURNS
1841
William Mercer                   25 years                  Publican
Jane Mercer                        30                           Wife
John Mercer                        7                             Son
James Mercer                      4                             Son
Mary Mercer                       3                             Daughter
Jane Mercer                        1                              Daughter

1851
George Parker                    48 years                   Auctioneer & Approaiser   b. Hoole
Sarah Parker                       37                            Wife                                  b. Lancaster
Fanny Parker                       14                            Daughter                           b. Preston
George Parker                     7                              Son                                            do

1861
Thomas Bibby                    37 years                   Innkeeper                           b. Walton-le-dale
Isabella Bibby                    21                             Wife                                   b. Preston

1871
Thomas Bailey                   34 years                    Innkeeper                           b. Preston
Mary Bailey                       34                             Wife                                           do
Richard Bailey                    11                             Son                                            do
William Bailey                     9                               Son                                            do
Elizabeth Bailey                   7                               Daughter                                    do

1881
Thomas Wareing                38 years                    Innkeeper                 b.Bamber Bridge
Isabella Wareing                 38                             Wife                                 b. Preston
Florence M. Wareing          2                               Daughter                                  do

1891
Henry Baldwin                   39 years                    Lic. Vict.                          b. Burnley Wood?
Jane Hill                             30                             Servant / Barmaid             b. Blackpool

1901   
Albert Redmond                35 years                    Publican                            b. Burnley
Mary Redmond                 34                             Wife                                  b. Preston
Willie Redmond                 12                             Son                                             do
Walter D. Redmond            9                              Son                                             do
Jane Godkin                       69                             Mother-in-law                  b. Longridge

1911
James Hothersall   NOT YET TRACED - 
*



Thursday, 4 December 2014

EXCHANGE HOTEL, Fox Street

EXCHANGE HOTEL
16 / 17 Fox Street
*
Formerly the "FOX STREET TAVERN"
The "Exchange" takes its name from the days when the Lune Street
Public Hall was used as a Corn Exchange, where farmers brought their
produce to town to be sold. Both before and after their transactions they
dropped in at the Exchange to enjoy some refreshment.
*
*
MINE HOSTS:
1853 - 67            William Fowler          d. 21.6.1867 aged 49 years
1868 - 69            James Coupe
1871 - 79            Mrs. Margaret Fowler   d. 8.6.1879 aged 61 years.
1879 - 89            Frederick Coward
1889 - 93            James Campbell
1893                    Richard Miller Taylor
1893 - 96            Walter Difford
1897 - 99            Samuel Pimley
1899 - 1900        Thomas Duckworth Yates
1900                   Samuel Pimley
1900 - 01            Fred Watson
1901                   John Cave   * See article, below, re: the Cave family.
1902                   Thomas Etherington
1904 - 05           Ada L. Dickinson
1907                   John H. Kirby
1910                   Ellen Kirby
1911 - 13           John Burke
1917                   Edward Wall
1924 - 27           Mrs. Alice Greenwood
1931                  James Preston   d. 28th January 1931  aged 31 years.
1931 - 40           Catherine Preston
1944 -                Henry Fellows
1948                  John Clarkson
*
*
*
EXCHANGE HOTEL
FOX STREET
CHOICE WINES, SPIRITS, HENNESSEY'S BRANDY,
FIRST-CLASS HOME-BREWED AND BITTER ALE,
CIGARS, &c.
EXCELLENT BAR-PARLOUR

JAMES COUPE, Proprietor
Preston Chronicle   19th December 1868
*
Preston Chronicle  20th March 1869
*
Under Entirely New Management
EXCHANGE HOTEL,  Fox Street,  PRESTON 
FRED WATSON, Proprietor
Two minutes from Theatre and Public Hall,
Five minutes from Station .
WINES, SPIRITS, and CIGARS
OF THE FINEST QUALITY.
W. HALL & Co's Famous Tithebarn
Street Brewery's Ales and Stouts
on draught.
Lunch from 11am to 1pm.  Call Solicited.
Lancashire Evenng Post  10th January 1901
*
BLAMED THE CLOCK
A clock with the fingers set in advance of the hour, was 
said to be responsible for the appearance at Preston Police Court, today, of Ellen Kirby, licensee of the Exchange Hotel, Fox Street, who was summoned for selling liquor a few minutes before 6am, the specified hour for opening,
Mr. Oakey, who prosecuted, pointed out that according to the Licensing Act of 1874, licensed premises were to be closed on weekdays from 11pm to 6am.
On November 28th  Sergeant Rwe and PC Bickerstaffe were on duty near the hotel and saw the door opened.
At 5.52am a man named Fletcher entered, and the constables followed, and found the customer being served with coffee and whisky, and there was 3p on the counter.
Mr. Blackhurst, for the defence, called evidence to show that, unknown to the landlady or her sister, Miss Lea who served the man, had wound up the clock the previous evening and put it five minutes fast.
A fine of 5 shillings and costs was imposed
Lancashire Evening Post  4th December 1908
*
Lancashire Evening Post  24th November 1920
*
 Lancashire Evening Post  16th August 1930
*
DEATH
On the 28th inst. at the Exchange Hotel, Fox Street, Preston, James, the beloved husband of Catherine Preston, aged 31 years.

On the 28th inst. at the Exchange Hotel, Fox Street, Preston, James, the beloved son of Annie and the late James Preston, Dog and Partridge Inn, Friargate. Lancashire Evening Post  30th January 1931
*
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:
Mrs Jas. Preston, and Mrs Preston and family desire to thank all Relatives, Worshipful Master, Brother A Kearsley, and Brethren of the Temple Lodge 4,477, Birkenhead, the Staff Matthew Brown & Co Ltd., Dr. Lowry, Nurse Simkins, Rev. J.H. Morson, and all friends for kind expressions of sympathy, and beautiful floral tributes, received during their recent sad loss.
Exchange Hotel, Fox Street, Preston.

Lancashire Evening Post  2nd February 1931 
*
THE CAVE FAMILY OF PRESTON: PUBLICANS, POLICE - AND OTHERS
A number of us have pub licensees, brewers and maltsters in our Cave family trees, so I was interested to find the website ‘Pubs in Preston - Preston’s Inns, Taverns and Beerhouses - One man’s attempt to recreate Preston’s 19th-century social life and times’. Its creator, Stephen Halliwell, has traced the life and times of hundreds of public houses and their occupants, in the Lancashire town of Preston.
The search facility revealed two Caves who were licensees in Preston -
1869-1874 - Samuel Cave (with Thomas Turner), the Fylde Tavern
1893-1894 - John Cave, The Glover Street Tavern
1897 - John Cave, The Wellington Inn
1901 - John Cave, The Exchange Hotel
1902 - John Cave, The Blackamoors Head
From just these two names has emerged an extensive and very interesting family tree. There appear to have been no other Caves in Preston at the time – always helpful in following a line – and almost without exception they stayed in the town.
Firstly, censuses indicated that Samuel and John were father and son. Samuel Cave was born in Preston in 1801 to Sarah Cave, no father was named, and he married Mary (maiden name not known). In censuses from 1841-1871 Samuel is described as M.S. (manservant), coachman, servant, and cabdriver. Census data doesn’t describe either Samuel or John as licensees, but there is sufficient evidence to indicate that they are the same people. Perhaps their time in the licensed trade was short and did not coincide with the census, or maybe they had multiple occupations. In May 1874 the Preston Guardian reported that Samuel Cave, landlord of the Fylde Tavern, was summoned for selling drink during prohibited hours, but the case was dismissed.
Samuel and Mary had at least seven children – Samuel (1833), Ann/e (1835), Isabella (1837), Sarah (1841), William (1844), Richard (1846) and John (1852). Because of the original link with the licensing trade I was initially concerned with John, the youngest, but the other siblings have also proved interesting.
John Cave (1852-1927)
In 1871 John was aged 19 and a footman (out of work). The Lancashire Record Office website also lists a John Cave who served with the police from 1871-1873, and information in a later newspaper report confirms that this was the same person.
On 11 February 1880 at St Peter’s Church, Preston, John was married to Lucy Watson, the daughter of the late William Mason, a publican. Lucy was a widow and had a small daughter Eliza Alice. Before her marriage to John, Lucy had lived with her aunt and uncle who were publicans at the Fox and Goose Tavern; and the Fox Street Tavern (later the Exchange Hotel). At the time of his marriage John was a Sanitary Inspector, also referred to as Inspector of Nuisances, and it appears that he was responsible for what we would now call weights and measures, or trading standards. Tragically, Lucy died the following year. Her daughter, Eliza Alice, later married a doctor and had three daughters. In 1883 John married Alice Foster, daughter of the late Richard Foster. They appear not to have had any family.
We know a little more about John from local newspapers. In 1878 the Preston Guardian reported a case where John Cave, inspector of nuisances, gave evidence in a case of adulterated milk. The case was proved and the defendant fined 40s. with costs. In 1880 the council minutes reported that John Cave, inspector of nuisances, had applied for an increase in salary. This was shortly after his first marriage to Lucy. The application was ‘referred to committee’ and the outcome not known.
At the end of 1892 there was considerable local press coverage about ‘The Slink Meat Traffic in Preston – Startling Disclosures’ and ‘Reorganisation of the Sanitary Dept.’ Slink meat was a term used to describe diseased meat which was unfit to eat, and as Sanitary Inspector John Cave was responsible for monitoring this traffic in the town. Some allegations state that slink meat was moved out of the area for onward sale, with the Sanitary Inspectors receiving ‘tips’ from farmers for this service, and that although S.I. Cave and his colleague had been in post for 20 years the service was negligent and corrupt, and that Preston had the highest death rate of any town in England. Probably largely in consequence, it was proposed that John Cave’s employment be terminated as part of large-scale reorganisation. However other members of the corporation spoke out in strong defence of the two Sanitary Inspectors, and a letter from John Cave was submitted. Again, it is not obvious exactly what the outcome was, but it seems likely that John Cave’s employment with the Corporation ceased, and that he then became licensee of the pubs mentioned above.
In the 1901 census John aged 45, was ‘living on own means’ with Alice, 40, at Lauderdale Street. By 1911 John and Alice, were aged 54 and 50, had been married for 27 years, and John was hotel manager at the Boreatton Arms Hotel, Baschurch, Staffs. John died aged 75 in 1927, having returned to Preston, and left the not inconsiderable sum of £3,749.4s.1d. to his widow Alice.
The Daughters:
Sarah Cave (m. Thomas Turner)
Sarah, b. 1841 is listed as a cotton weaver at home with her parents in 1861 census. In July 1861 at St John’s Church Preston, Sarah married Thomas Turner (b.1837, son of Richard Turner). In 1861, prior to his marriage, Thomas was a policeman but by 1871 Thomas was a beer house keeper – another link to the licensed trade. Presumably he was the joint landlord of the Fylde Tavern with Samuel Cave in 1869-1874. By 1881 he had become a corn dealer, then a farmer. Sarah and Thomas stayed in and around Preston and had 11 children of whom 8 were surviving in 1911. Two of their sons were butchers. Sarah and Thomas both lived into their 80s.
Ann(e) was born c. 1835 and married John Hunt in 1846. They had two sons, James (b. 1864) and Richard (b. 1869), and four daughters – Mary, Sarah Ann, Ruth, and Elizabeth Ellen. This was a family mainly employed in the local cotton industry – John was a cotton yarn dresser, Ann a cotton weaver, and their daughters all followed them as weavers. James aged 17 was an apprentice coach builder.
Isabella Cave (m. Hugh Ashcroft)
Isabella Cave (b. 1837) was a cotton weaver in 1861, at home with parents. In 1871, after a little bit of detective work, I found her in the guise of Bella Ashcroft (nee ‘Kay’) living in Mount Street, Preston at an address between parents Samuel and Mary, and brother William. Neither Isabella nor her husband Hugh, a farmer’s son, were literate – they signed the marriage register with a cross - and so the name had apparently become corrupted. It is curious that neither her brother or father, who were present at their ceremony, noticed the mistake, and father Samuel’s name was also mis-spelt. By 1881 Isabella and Hugh had two daughters and two sons, in 1901 Isabella, now widowed, was a lodging house keeper.
Samuel Cave (Jnr.) (1833-1912) and his son William Henry Morgan Cave (1862-1942)
Returning to the Cave brothers, Samuel (Jnr.) is unusual in this family as he was ‘the one who moved away’ from Preston. He married Mary Morgan in July 1857 at Trinity Church Paddington. They had two sons, as well as other children. Samuel was a bank messenger. By 1901 he was widowed and had returned to Preston to live with his younger brother Richard.
Samuel and Mary’s eldest son, William Henry Morgan Cave (b. 1862), is the one who can be said to ‘have made good’. In 1881 he was clerk to an accountant, his brother Frederick (b. 1865) being clerk to an agent. In 1885 William married Elizabeth Randall in Peckham, daughter of a toy merchant. In 1891 and 1901 William H.M. and Elizabeth were in Deptford and in 1911 in Brockley, SE London, with their son Henry Randall Cave (bc 1884) and two daughters, Grace (bc 1891) and Mary (bc 1896). As the oldest grandchild of the Preston Cave clan, William was fortunate to inherit money from his father Samuel (Jnr.) in 1912 (£634.1s.6d) and from his (childless) uncle Richard who left him £1,976.8s.6d in 1929. William H.M. was a stocks and shares dealer at the Stock Exchange and he died in September 1942 in Haywards Heath, leaving £22,461.4s.1d to his eldest son, Henry Randall Cave, who was a member of the Stock Exchange. Henry Randall Cave had served in the Great War from August 1914 to March 1918, when he was discharged because of wounds following service overseas, and awarded the Silver War badge. From 1916, this was given to men of serviceable age who had been honourably discharged due to wounds or sickness and was worn with civilian dress to prevent accusations of cowardice.
William Cave (1844-1933)
William Cave was the second son of Samuel Cave Snr. and Mary. William married Alice Miller in Preston in April 1870, and their children were all born in Preston – James Miller (1871), Mary Ann (1872), Samuel R. (1875) and Edith Isabella (1877). In 1881 and 1891 William was listed as a police sergeant and police inspector, but his earlier and more exciting career was discovered from the Lancashire Daily Post. In April 1930 on the occasion of his Diamond Wedding anniversary, and three years later, his obituary in 1933, his early life was described as “an adventurous lifetime of 65 years in which he – left school at 9; ran away to sea at 14; joined the Army at 15; was in a mutiny at 16; fought the Maoris at 17, and joined the police force at 24”. The newspaper reports:
Willie Cave had been an errand boy, a grocer’s assistant, and a plumber before he made up his mind to run away to sea at 14. So he went to Liverpool, and after wandering about the docks for a day and a night, fell in with a recruiting party. The recruiting sergeant bought him over for a shilling, kept him in bed a week to ‘stretch’ him, and then giving his age as 18 enlisted him in the 65th Foot, the Royal Bengal Tigers. After 12 months in Ireland they were sent out to New Zealand to assist in quelling the Maori rebellion. The troop ship took four months to reach Auckland, and during the voyage the soldiers mutinied, owning to a shortage of fresh water. Mr Cave spent six years in New Zealand fighting the Maoris, and he took part in the battle of Rangariri on 20 November 1863... where between 300 and 400 British soldiers were killed ... At 24 Mr Cave left the Army and joined the Preston borough police force ... rose to the rank of inspector, and retired after 26 years’ service.
Since then Mr & Mrs Cave have jogged along comfortably. For the past 22 years they have acted as caretakers ... in Lune-street, Preston, and there they live in a cosy little kitchen right in the heart of the town, yet tucked away from the noise and bustle of modern traffic.
William Cave’s 1933 obituary begins “Old Billy Cave has not lived to see the spring. The doyen of Preston police inspectors died this morning ... but a month ago he posed for a photograph with the five oldest police pensioners in the town”.
In 1893 William Cave was named in a case where an ‘absent’ landlord was accused of harbouring an officer on duty, although William Cave, an officer with nearly 25 years’ service, was allegedly searching the premises for suspected intruders. The landlord was convicted and fined £5 but it is not clear, from the lengthy and wordy reports, how this affected P.I. Cave. Later reports imply that he continued to serve in the police force.
Richard Cave (c. 1846-1929)
Richard married Susannah Fielding in 1879. Susannah was from Dolphinholme, Lancs., and they may have met when Richard worked in Salford as a servant to the Dean of Manchester, as it is recorded in the 1871 census that Susannah’s sister Nancy was also a servant there. Prior to this in 1861 Richard, aged 14, had been a footman. By 1881 he was a prison warden and appears to have followed this occupation until he appears as a pensioner, retired warden, in 1911. Richard and Susannah had no children but I view them as a kind couple - in 1901 they shared their home with Richard’s widowed brother Samuel, who had returned from London, and also Susannah’s sister Nancy who had not married. In 1887 Samuel Cave Snr., Richard’s father, had died at their home where he too may have been living after his wife died in 1880.
Having started to look for links with pubs in this family, they have proved to be of much broader interest – and there is more to find. For anyone with local knowledge of Preston, it would be easy – and fascinating – to trace where this Cave family lived and worked, often moving short distances around a small number of streets, and would provide a great family history trail.
There are still a number of Caves listed in Preston today and I wonder if they are descendants? I would like to know if anyone else has followed this interesting line, which I have been able to trace in the area for over a hundred years. Nearly all of the information in this study is sourced through mainstream genealogy websites; from the Cave FHS Table NZ, and the excellent Lancashire Online Parish Clerk website. I am especially grateful to Steve Halliwell of ‘Pubs in Preston blogspot’ for his help and interest.
Wendy Wright

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CENSUS RETURNS
1871
Margaret Fowler              50 years                    Hotel Keeper               b. Farnworth
Alice Grace Fowler          83                             Aunt                             b. Burscough
Richard Watson               26                   Nephew / Plumber's glazier     b. Preston
Lucy Watson (nee Mason) 22                           Niece                           b. West Bromwich, Staffs.
Eliza Alice Watson            1                              Niece ?                        b. Preston
Ellen Abbott                     15                             Domestic Servant                 do
Thomas Johnson               12                             Domestic Servant        b. Penwortham

1881
Frederick Coward            38 years                    Lic. Vict.                     b. Preston
May Coward                    35                             Wife                                    do
Ernest Coward                  10                             Son                                     do
Thomas Coward                 8                              Son                                    do
Nellie Coward                    6                              Daughter                             do
Fred Coward                     5                               Son                                    do
Grace Coward                   1 month                     Daughter                            do

1891
Jane Campbell                 65 years                                                        b. Lytham
James Campbell              35                               Son / Lic. Vict.           b. Preston
Thomas Campbell           27                                Son                                    do
1901
Fred Watson                   35 years                      Publican                     b. Oldham
Mary H. Watson              34                              Wife                                   do

1911
John Burke            2 males and 1 female living here.  No further details yet.
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